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Ophiolites and Oceanic Crust: New Insights from Field Studies and the Ocean Drilling Program

Geological Society of America Special Paper 349

Edited by Yildirim Dilek, Eldridge Moores, Don Elthon, and Adolphe Nicolas

"Ophiolites are geological windows into the history of the Earth and Earth processes," Dilek and Moores said. "They provide important clues to how ocean basins formed and disappeared in the past and how the dynamic planet Earth's paleogeography (distribution of continental masses and oceans) looked many millions of years ago. The discovery of copper in ophiolitic volcanic rocks in the Mediterranean region ushered in the Bronze Age in the history of human civilizations. Studies of ophiolites have advanced the methods and theories of geology for more than 200 years. This book presents state-of-the-art information on the significance of ophiolites in studying different aspects of the Earth's history."

Since 1972, when the first GSA Penrose Conference on Ophiolites was convened, these unique features have galvanized multinational and multidisciplinary efforts to study and decipher these complexes and their significance for understanding oceanic lithosphere formation.

The second Penrose Conference on ophiolites in 1998 brought together 86 experts in structural geology, tectonics, geophysics, petrology, and geochemistry to explore new advances and discoveries concerning ophiolites and related drilling from the oceanic crust. Special Paper 349 includes 39 papers from this conference plus updated information on the evolution of ophiolites and modern oceanic crust, and integrates new interdisciplinary data from ocean drilling and other studies of in situ oceanic lithosphere with new results from field studies of ophiolite complexes around the world.

Special Paper 349 Table of Contents

Preface vii

Section I. Ophiolites, Oceanic Crust, and Global Tectonics

1. Tethyan ophiolites, mantle convection, and tectonic “historical contingency”: A resolution of the “ophiolite conundrum”
Eldridge M. Moores, Louise H. Kellogg, and Yildirim Dilek
3
2. Evidence for subduction-related contamination of the mantle beneath the southern Chile Ridge: Implications for ambiguous ophiolite compositions
Marnie E. Sturm, Emily M. Klein, Jill L. Karsten, and Jeffrey A. Karson
13
3. The ophiolite–oceanic lithosphere analogue: New insights from the Northern Apennines (Italy)
Elisabetta Rampone and Giovanni B. Piccardo
21
4. Significance of serpentine mud volcanism in convergent margins
Patricia Fryer, John P. Lockwood, Nathan Becker, Steven Phipps, and Clifford S. Todd
35
5. Spatial and temporal relationships between ophiolites and their metamorphic soles: A test of models of forearc ophiolite genesis
John Wakabayashi and Yildirim Dilek
53

Section II. Oceanic Lower Crust and Upper Mantle

6. Large mantle upwellings and related variations in crustal thickness in the Oman ophiolite
Adolphe Nicolas and Françoise Boudier
67
7. Lower oceanic crust formed at an ultra-slow-spreading ridge: Ocean Drilling Program Hole 735B, Southwest Indian Ridge
Paul T. Robinson, Henry J.B. Dick, James H. Natland, and the ODP Leg 176 Shipboard Party
75
8. Magmatic and tectonic controls on the evolution of oceanic magma chambers at slow-spreading ridges: Perspectives from ophiolitic and continental layered intrusions
Peter Thy and Yildirim Dilek
87
9. Syntexis and the genesis of lower oceanic crust
Jean H. Bédard, Réjean Hébert, Alain Berclaz, and Véronika Varfalvy
105
10. Can downward flow of dense cumulate slurry through mushy upper gabbros produce lower gabbros at a fast-spreading center?
W. Roger Buck
121
11. Evolution of gabbroic rocks of the Northern Apennine ophiolites (Italy): Comparison with the lower oceanic crust from modern slow-spreading ridges
Riccardo Tribuzio, Massimo Tiepolo, and Riccardo Vannucci
129
12. New insights concerning the influence of water during the formation of podiform chromitite
Stephen J. Edwards, Julian A. Pearce, and Jonathan Freeman
139
13. Gauging stress from mantle chromitite pods in the Oman ophiolite
Benjamin Holtzman
149

Section III. Structure and Physical Properties of Upper Oceanic Crust

14. Dependence of crustal accretion and ridge-axis topography on spreading rate, mantle temperature, and hydrothermal cooling
Yongshun John Chen
161
15. Comparison of volcanic construction in the Troodos ophiolite and oceanic crust using paleomagnetic inclinations from Cyprus Crustal Study Project (CCSP) CY-1 and CY-1A and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) 504B drill cores
Hans Schouten and Charles R. Denham
181
16. On the boundary between seismic layers 2 and 3: A stress change?
Philippe A. Pezard
195
17. Characterization of the upper oceanic crust using high-resolution seismic amplitude modeling  
Yue-Feng Sun and David Goldberg
203

Section IV. Hydrothermal Processes

18. A synthesis of geological and geochemical investigations of the TAG hydrothermal field: Insights into fluid-flow and mixing processes in a hydrothermal system
Susan E. Humphris and Margaret K. Tivey
213
19. Volatiles in mid-ocean ridge environments
Deborah S. Kelley and Gretchen L. Früh-Green
237
20. Lower-crustal cracking front at fast-spreading ridges: Evidence from the East Pacific Rise and the Oman ophiolite
Craig E. Manning, Christopher J. MacLeod, and Patricia E. Weston
261
21. Hydrothermal alteration and fluid fluxes in ophiolites and oceanic crust
Jeffrey C. Alt and Damon A.H. Teagle
273
22. Hydrothermal alteration patterns in supra-subduction zone ophiolites
Kathryn M. Gillis and Neil R. Banerjee
283

Section V. Pacific Rim Ophiolites

23. Macquarie Island: Its geology, structural history, and the timing and tectonic setting of its N-MORB to E-MORB magmatism
Rick Varne, Anthony V. Brown, and Trevor Falloon
301
24. The Timor ophiolite, Indonesia: Model or myth?
Ron Harris and Timothy Long
321
25. Proterozoic–early Paleozoic ophiolites of the Andean basement of southern South America
Victor A. Ramos, Mónica Escayola, Diana I. Mutti, and Graciela I. Vujovich
331
26. Prospecting for ophiolites along the California continental margin
Robert G. Coleman
351
27. Mesozoic assimilation of oceanic crust and island arc into the North American continental margin in California and Nevada: Insights from geophysical data
Nicola J. Godfrey and Yildirim Dilek
365
28. Tectonostratigraphic significance of sedimentary strata occurring within and above the Coast Range ophiolite (California Coast Ranges) and the Josephine ophiolite (Klamath Mountains), northwestern California
Emile A. Pessagno, Jr., Donna M. Hull, and Clifford A. Hopson
383
29. Models for origin and emplacement of Jurassic ophiolites of northern California
Raymond V. Ingersoll
395
30. Geology and geochemistry of the ophiolitic Trinity terrane, California: Evidence of middle Paleozoic depleted supra-subduction zone magmatism in a proto-arc setting
Rodney V. Metcalf, E. Timothy Wallin, Keith R. Willse, and Edward R. Muller
403
31. Sulfide minerals as an indicator for petrogenesis and serpentinization of peridotites: An example from the Hayama-Mineoka belt, central Japan
Hiroshi Sato and Yujiro Ogawa
419

Section VI. Ophiolites from the Iapetus, Rheic-Pleionic, Neotethyan, and Indian Oceans

431
32. Contrasting mantle sequences exposed in the Lewis Hills massif: Evidence for the early, arc-related history of the Bay of Islands ophiolite
Günter Suhr and Stephen John Edwards
433
33. Petrology, tectonics, and hydrothermal alteration of a fossil backarc oceanic crust: Solund-Stavfjord ophiolite complex of the western Norwegian Caledonides—A review
Harald Furnes, Kjell Petter Skjerlie, and Yildirim Dilek
443
34. Early Devonian boninites from the Magnitogorsk arc, southern Urals (Russia): Implications for early development of a collisional orogen
Piera Spadea and Jane H. Scarrow
461
35. Constraints on the formation and emplacement age of western Greek ophiolites (Vourinos, Pindos, and Othris) inferred from deformation structures in peridotites
Annie Rassios and Alan G. Smith
473
36. Petrology and geochemistry of the Shahr-Babak ophiolite, central Iran
A. Mohamad Ghazi and A.A. Hassanipak
485
37. Aswad massif (United Arab Emirates): Archetype of the Oman-UAE ophiolite belt
Adolphe Nicolas, Françoise Boudier, K. Michibayashi, and L. Gerbert-Gaillard
499
38. A new structural profile along the Muscat-Ibra transect, Oman: Implications for emplacement of the Samail ophiolite
David R. Gray, Robert T. Gregory, and John McL. Miller
513
39. Formation and evolution of the western Indian Ocean as evidenced by the Masirah ophiolite: A review
Tjerk Peters
525

Index

537



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